1. 1.      Bandura highlighted the value of self-efficacy in learning.  What experiences in distance learning can you cite as concrete examples to demonstrate how your efficacy beliefs about learning may have changed? (Refer to the four major sources of self-efficacy identified in the module.)

Mastery experiences – One would be navigating through Myportal. As a returning DE student of UPOU, I’ve noticed a lot of “upgrades” that I find myself feeling new and overwhelmed but soon after I got used to the change.

Social Modeling – Going through other people’s anecdote made me realize a lot of things. One of it would be that regardless of race and social status, students will always be students.

Social Persuasion – Getting a response from your classmate and subject teacher makes you realize that you are not alone and merely talking to thin air (in this case, cyber space).

Psychological Responses – Just when I was ready to give up and just submit the requirements next term, I’ve received an email regarding an extension on submitting your work– this was really helpful.

  1. 2.      Discuss and elaborate through anecdotes the section “Factors affecting observational learning and performance.”

[i]Not all observed behaviors are effectively learned. Factors involving both the model and the learner can play a role in whether social learning is successful. Certain requirements and steps must also be followed. The following steps are involved in the observational learning and modeling process:


In order to learn, you need to be paying attention. Anything that detracts your attention is going to have a negative effect on observational learning. If the model interesting or there is a novel aspect to the situation, you are far more likely to dedicate your full attention to learning.


The ability to store information is also an important part of the learning process. Retention can be affected by a number of factors, but the ability to pull up information later and act on it is vital to observational learning.


Once you have paid attention to the model and retained the information, it is time to actually perform the behavior you observed. Further practice of the learned behavior leads to improvement and skill advancement.


Finally, in order for observational learning to be successful, you have to be motivated to imitate the behavior that has been modeled. Reinforcement and punishment play an important role in motivation. While experiencing these motivators can be highly effective, so can observing other experience some type of reinforcement or punishment. For example, if you see another student rewarded with extra credit for being to class on time, you might start to show up a few minutes early each day.