[i]The cognitive view sees learning as transforming significant understanding we already have, rather than simple acquisitions written on blank slates. Instead of being passively influenced by environmental events, people actively choose, practice, pay attention, ignore, reflect, and make many more other decisions as they pursue goals. Older cognitive view s emphasized the acquisition of knowledge, but newer approaches stress its construction.

The role of attention is very important in learning. By paying attention to selected stimuli and ignoring others, we limit the possibilities of what will be processed. What we pay attention to is also guided by what we already know and what we need to know. In class, students cannot process information that they do not recognize or perceive.

[ii]Working memory is a limited capacity part of the human memory system that combines the temporary storage and manipulation of information in the service of cognition. Short-term memory refers to information-storage without manipulation and is therefore a component of working memory. Working memory differs from long-term memory, a separate part of the memory system with a vast storage capacity that holds information in a relatively more stable form. According to the multi-component model, working memory includes an executive controller that interacts with separate short-term stores for auditory-verbal and visuo-spatial information.

  1.  What do you see as possible weaknesses or inadequacies in information processing theory with respect to describing/ explaining how people learn?

One of its weaknesses is an in-depth analysis of the theory itself.

[i] Educational Psychology, 9th Edition, Anita Woolfolk